What is the oxford school education class 4.

The Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE) has been active in research and field
work since 1974. Interdisciplinary scholarship at the Centre has been developed around a
doctoral program in Science Education. As one outcome of this research and development, about ten
years ago, textbooks, workbooks and teacher’s books in primary science were brought out by

ALSO READ : What is the school for a education.
The books received warm and appreciative response from all quarters – teachers,
students, parents, professionals and also Government agencies. At the time of first publication
some of the ideas in these books appeared radical and unconventional. Today these ideas have
become part of the discourse of education in our country. We are therefore very happy that the
Oxford University Press has taken on itself the job of publishing and distributing these books on a
much wider scale.
The National Curriculum Framework 2005 has prepared five guiding principles for
curriculum development: connecting knowledge to life outside the school; ensuring that learning
shifts away from rote methods; enriching the curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks; making
examinations more flexible and integrating them with classroom life; and nurturing an overriding
identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic polity of the country. Often however
there remains a gap between the generally agreed objectives of the curriculum and their actual
translation into textbooks and teaching practices.
The books brought out by HBCSE reflect an attempt to close this gap as much as
possible. It is for the users of these books to decide if this attempt has been successful.

Preface to Small Science Class 4

The Small Science books have emerged out of a process of research, field-work and classroom
trials. Their activity-based approach is based on the idea that first-hand concrete experiences at
an early age gradually strengthen the child’s capacity to construct abstract formulations.
Curriculum units are therefore developed around simple, cognitively and contextually
appropriate, activities and exercises which help children explore and understand the world
around them.
Small Science discourages memorisation of text, focusing instead on acquisition of tools of
learning: namely, observation, design drawing and construction, along with basic scholastic
skills of speaking, reading, writing and calculating.
The books interweave a story about two curious children, Mini and Apu, who learn many
things by observing, doing, inquiring and reflecting on their experiences. Questions stimulate
students to observe and think beyond the book, while stories and poems enliven their reading.
The WorkBook lays out a format for recording results of the activities and exercises. The same
format enables continuous assessment of the student’s work.
The Teacher’s Book provides conceptual guidance and practical hints. Much effort has gone
into providing the teacher with background information relevant to the Indian socio-cultural,
geographical and natural-historical context. Results of classroom trials too are conveyed
through first-person accounts in the Teacher’s Book.
These books are supplemented by a Teacher’s Book in Environmental Studies for Classes 1
and 2 which is available from the Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE), Tata
Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai.
Do write and tell us if you liked the books; and please send us your ideas for improving them.


I would like to thank:
Arvind Kumar who initiated the Homi Bhabha Curriculum and gave constant encouragement and
Suchitra Varde who conscientiously tested the activities and exercises
The principals, staff and students of the Children’s Aid Society, Nutan Vidya Mandir and the
Atomic Energy Central Schools, Mumbai, and Vivek High School, Chandigarh, who
enthusiastically participated in the trials
Karen Haydock who did the design and illustrations, contributed many good ideas and gave
interesting feedback from the classroom
Children of Village Titaram, Kaithal Dist., Haryana, the Atomic Energy Central Schools,
Mumbai, and Vivek High School, Chandigarh, who contributed some wonderful pictures
Members of HBCSE who clarified my doubts: Anand Ghaisas, Ashwini Kanhere, R. S.
Korgaonkar, Rekha Vartak, Sandhya Thulasidas, Savita Ladage, V. G. Gambhir and V. N.
Purohit; and those who also gave valuable suggestions on the draft versions: Bakhtavar
Mahajan, Chitra Natarajan, G. Nagarjuna, Jyotsna Vijapurkar, K. Subramaniam, Poornima
Burte and Sugra Chunawala
P. R. Fadnavis, C. S. Pawar and others who provided administrative support and N. S. Thigale and
G. Mestry who helped in photocopying
Ravindra Patwardhan, Fouzia Dohadwala and Gouri Patil who helped in the final stages of

M. M. Johri and K. S. Krishnan of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR),
B. Shyamala of the Colaba Observatory, S. K. Dash of the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi,
V. Abraham, formerly of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, I. Kehimkar of the Bombay Natural
History Society and G. V. Joshi of New English School, Murbad, who gave expert advice
The School of Mathematics, TIFR, who allowed use of their computer facilities
My daughter Rohini, son Harishchandra and many good friends, who were so supportive during
some difficult times.

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