Village information system is a comprehensive and
detailed study of villages at the core level and it
provides complete information for decision – making
based on their existing resources and capabilities.
The information would range from facilities present in
the village the infrastructural quality within it. A
comparative analysis has been carried out in the
villages that have been taken into consideration,
namely Bhopal poor, Tikri khurd, Nandapur villages,
which is a part of Pindar Block of Varanasi district
covering an area of about 1.68 sq.km. An attempt has
been made to study the present status of water
resources, land resources, soil fertility, cropping paler
etc. to prepare the digital thematic maps namely, land
use, house type, source of water resources,
occupational structure etc. on Arc G I S platform using
high resolution I K O N O S data ( year 2007) in
conjunction with S O I topographical map (year 1972)
and field. Population data, occupation data and
household level data are collected by both primary
and secondary data collection methods and after
that digital database were generated. This kind of
information is very useful for to create better
infrastructure at the village levels.
Keywords: Village information System, High
Resolution Data, Arc G I S etc.
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Village information system is a GIS based application, which provides detailed information pertaining to
demography, infrastructure and natural resources for every house. These information’s are needed to analyze
the existing scenario at the development stage in the village. Through GIS and Remote Sensing, it is possible
to compile this geographically referenced data on a systematic manner and store them for retrieval at a
subsequent point of time, planners and decision makers at village level have to depend upon spatial and nonspatial data for optimal interpretation. Hence, the planners need to have at their disposal sophisticated data
management systems to handle such spatially correlated data. This new technology can reduce the time and
cost to the planners in organizing the data in arriving at precise conclusion and decision.
The study area covers namely Bhopalpur, Tikri khurd, Nandapur villages, which is a part of Pindra Block of
Varanasi district covering an area of about 1.68 sq.km. Location extent of the study area is 25° 25’ 16” N to
25° 24’ N latitude and 82° 50’ 41” E to 82° 51’ 17” E longitude. It situated on the left side of Ganga River and
surrounded by Baragaon, Cholapur, Harahua and Sewapuri blocks in the west, east, south-east and south
direction respectively (Fig. 1A).
Data & Methodology
High Resolution IKONOS data of April 2007, Survey of India toposheet having 1:50,000 scale and field data
are use for the study. Thematic map like land uses, water resource and crop pattern are prepared by visual
interpretation of satellite data based on the image characteristics like tone, size, shape, pattern, location,
association etc. Preliminary quality check lend necessary correction are carried out for all the maps prepared.
A reconnaissance field survey was done in the study area to check the delineated units. Position of some of
the land features are recorded through the hand held GPS. Settlement areas were delineated done with the
help on on-site measuring and sketches. And guides are also used to maintain shape and geometric property
of building. In the field, household survey was carried out with the help of a questionnaire to collect
information related to housing condition, occupation, water source sanitation and infrastructure. Field
observations are incorporated in to the related thematic layers. All parameters were taken into consideration
and maps were made. All household are categorized by occupation wise, water supply electric facility etc.
based on the house-wise statistical findings.
Result & Discussion
Land Use/Land Cover
The land use map of the study area shows the most of the land is cultivated, that comprises 1.68 sq. km.
area. This occupied 72% of the total land of the study area. The main crops grows in the study area are rice,
wheat and sugarcane. Other crops grows in the study area are urad dal, arhar dal, corn, mustered, gram,
vegetable and bar-sin grass. Details area statistics for each land use features are given in Table 1 and land use
map shown in the figure 1 B.
Most of the houses in all villages are having single store. In the study area out of the total 348 houses 302
houses are single store’s having kaccha/pacca walls and kaccha/pacca roof in all villages of the study area
(which is 86% of the total). In the study area out of the total 348 houses 46 houses are double storey having
RCC/RBC roof in all villages of the study area (which is 14% of out of total).
Most of the houses in all villages are pacca houses. The houses having pacca walls in spite of kaccha roof are
considered under pacca houses, the houses having pacca walls and kaccha roof are considered as semi-pacca
and houses having both kaccha roof and kaccha walls are considered under kaccha houses. Out of the total
348 houses, 198 houses are pacca (56% of the total), 79 houses are semi-pacca (24% of the total) and 71
houses are kaccha (20% of the total).
Source of Water
The most common source of water supply is hand pump, which serves 255 houses out of the total 348
houses. The second source of water supply is well, which is the source of water for 64 houses, 9 household
uses tube well as source of water and rest 20 houses having no water supply facility, they share water facility
to their neighbours.
Source of Cooking
The main source of the cooking in the study area is wood/upla. 249 household (72% of the total) uses
wood/upla as a main source of the cooking. And rest 99 household uses L.P.G./Bio Gas, which is 28% of total.
Those houses which uses wood/upla as a source of cooking, they belong to agricultural and labourer class.
And the people who use L.P.G./Bio Gas as a source of cooking, they belong to service and self-employed
The condition of electricity in all villages of the study area is quite good. In study area, 301 houses (86% of
the total) are having electricity facility and the rest 47 (which is 14% of the total) houses have no electric
facilities. But duration of electric current is not good; it serves approximately only 6-7 hours/day.
Sanitation facility in all villages of the study area is not good. In study area more than 63% household (219
households) don’t have its own sanitation facility inside their houses and they have to go outside (usually in
the field) for sanitary purpose. And 37% (129 households) have its own sanitation facility.
There are 146 households (which are 42% of the total) use telephone/mobile as a main source of
communication and 202 households (which are 58% of the total) haven’t any communicational facilities. The
main reason of higher percentage of household having not any single communicational facilities is because of
majority of people in the study area comes under agricultural and labourer classes, and they can’t afford this
In the study area about 49% of people are engaged in the agricultural activity. There are 65 household
(which is 19% of the total) are earning from service, 58 household (which is 17% of the total) are earning
from their own business and rest 54 household (which is 15% of the total) comes under labour class.
Total population in the study area is 3229. Contribution of male population (>18 year) is 1027 while female
population (>18 years) contributes 891. Children population (<18 year, both boys & girls) is 1311.
Condition of literacy in the study area is very good. Total numbers of literates is 2600 out of 3229 persons
(which is 81% of the total population). While 622 persons are illiterates (which is 19% of the total
Mainly 4 types of cattle are found in the study area. They are buffalo, cow, ox and goat. Total numbers of
cattle’s are 617, in which the number of buffalo, cow, ox and goat is 202, 315, 19 and 81 respectively.
In the study area only road transportation (metalled, unmetalled and cart track) is available. Total length of
the metalled, unmetalled and cart track road is 3.07, 8.85 and 2.55 km. respectively. A state highway also
crosses the study area, whose length is 1.42 km.
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Village Information System through high resolution remote sensing data integrated with field survey with
GPS is an attempt to bring focus on several aspects of living standard of people and for generation of data
base on various facilities in the village. With the help of Arc G I S software features could be very easily
vectored and integrated with the secondary data. The infrastructure facilities present in the study area are
not adequate to fulfill the needs of the villagers. The water supply and sanitation condition in the villages is
very poor. People here are still dependent on the municipal supply of water. Most of the houses in this area
do not have a private toilet and there is no good arrangement for public toilets as well. Lack of hygienic water
supply and sanitation gives rise to several life taking diseases. Health care facilities in the study area are also
not sufficient. Electricity is another serious problem in this area with almost all the houses. As far as
employment is concerned most of the villagers are engaged in primary occupation. Communication facilities
within these villages are quite good.
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Ghosal, A and Ghosh, S., (1992), “Integration of Remote Sensing, GIS and Database management system in
Resource planning”, Proceedings of the International Space Year conference on Remote Sensing and GIS,
Hyderabad, (pp: 369-373).
NIC (National Informatics Centre). Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Government of
India, New Delhi. http: //www.nic.in.